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Home >> Products >> Calcium superphosphate
Introduction
Calcium superphosphate, which is also called single superphosphate, ordinary superphosphate and superphosphate, is a kind of superphosphate fertilizers. The key component of it is monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2•H2O), and the accessory component is calcium sulfate (CaSO4). Besides, there is also a small amount of free phosphoric acid, free sulfuric acid, dicalcium phosphate, ferric phosphate, aluminium phosphate and magnesium phosphate.


Basic property
The main components of calcium superphosphate are CaH2(PO4)2 and CaSO4•2H2O. It’s also called superphosphate. It’s a kind of white powder at room temperature. The substance obtained by means of using sulfuric acid to disintegrate Ca5(PO4)3F is called ordinary superphosphate. Its main components are Ca(H2PO4)2•H2O, anhydrous calcium sulfate and a little phosphoric acid. The effective P4O10 is about 14 %~20 %, and 80%~95% is soluble in water that it is a water-soluble quick-acting phosphatic fertilizer and can be used as phosphatic fertilizer directly, and can also be used for producing compound fertilizer. Since the grade of ordinary superphosphate is very low, the sale price of effective constituent is very high. Therefore, there are some high-concentration phosphatic fertilizers in the industry. The product obtained is not contained with calcium sulfate but monocalcium phosphate when phosphoric acid is used to have reaction with apatite. This product is called triple superphosphate that is white powder, and the effective P4O10 is about 30%~45% that it is twice as ordinary superphosphate. Triple superphosphate is mainly used as acid phosphatic fertilizer. The gas of carbon dioxide can be given off when triple superphosphate is in reaction with sodium bicarbonate, and can be used food fermentation. Calcium superphosphate is a compound.

Basic principle
The main reaction of sulfuric acid disintegrating phosphorite to produce calcium superphosphate: 2Ca5F(PO4)3+7H2SO4+3H2O─→3Ca(H2PO4)2•H2O+7CaSO4+2HF

The practical reaction is divided into two steps: the first step, which is very fast and can be finished in few minutes, is the reaction between sulfuric acid and a part of phosphorite to produce phosphoric acid and calcium sulfate. Monocalcium phosphate can be produced when the phosphoric acid produced has reaction with a part of phosphorite. This step is controlled by liquid-phase diffusion, and the speed is very slow that it will last for few days or a couple of weeks.

Silicon tetrafluoride is produced when hydrogen fluoride that is produced from the reaction has reaction with silicon dioxide or silicate taken in by phosphorite. Some of it is overflowed, and a part of is hydrolyzed into fluosilicic acid and remained in the reaction mass. Some associated impurities and minerals of phosphorite are also involved in reaction: carbonate minerals are disintegrated by sulfuric acid rapidly, producing sulfate and overflow carbon dioxide. Iron and aluminium minerals are disintegrated into acid phosphate. Besides, a lot of crystal is separated out by the resultants of reaction. The material becomes stiff rapidly and is solidified into vesicular solid material.

Basic applications
It can be supplied with a lot of elements such as phosphorus, calcium and sulphur to plants, and has the effect of improving alkaline soil. It can be used as base fertilizer, foliage spray and blade surface spraying. When it is mixed with nitrogenous fertilizer, it has the effect of nitrogen fixation and can reduce losing nitrogen. Besides, it can promote plants to sprout, grow roots, branch, seed and mature, and can also be used as the raw material of producing compound fertilizer.
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