硫 酸

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Home >> Products >> Sulfuric acid
Chinese name: 硫酸
English name: sulfuric acid
Molecular formula: H2SO4
Relative molecular mass: 98.08
Component/composition information: sulfuric acid 98.0% (concentrated)
Hybridization form of central atom: sp3

Pure sulfuric acid is a kind of colorless and tasteless oily liquid. The mass fraction of the commonly used concentrated sulfuric acid is 98.3%. The density is 1.84g•cm3 and the amount-of-substance concentration is 18.4mol•L-1. Sulfuric acid is a non-volatile strong acid whose boiling point is high, soluble in water and miscible in water with by proportion. Concentrated sulfuric acid can release plenty of heat while being dissolved. Therefore, while diluting concentrated sulfuric acid, it should be poured into water slowly along the wall and mixed constantly. And if sulfur trioxide is bubbled into concentrated sulfuric acid continuously, there will be the phenomenon of phenomenon. The sulfuric acid whose concentration is over 98.3% is called fuming sulfuric acid.

Chemical property
Dehydration property
As far as the sulfuric acid is concerned, dehydration property is the property of concentrated sulfuric acid, but not of dilute sulfuric acid. That’s to say, concentrated sulfuric acid has the property of dehydration and is very strong.

Dehydration property is chemical characteristic of concentrated sulfuric acid. The process of substance being dehydrated by the concentrated sulfuric acid is also the process of chemical transformation. In the reaction, hydrogen and oxygen atoms based on the proportion of 2:1 is captured from the substance dehydrated by the concentrated sulfuric acid.

In general, the substance that can be dehydrated by concentrated sulfuric acid is the organic matter that has hydrogen and oxygen elements. Organic matters such as cane sugar, sawdust and cotton will become black charcoal after being dehydrated (carbonization).

Strong oxidizing property

Reaction with metal
Concentrated sulfuric acid can make metals such as iron and aluminium passivated at room temperature.

Except gold and platinum, concentrated sulfuric acid can react with all the metals and produce high valent metal sulfate while being heated, and can be reverted to SO2 generally.

Cu + 2H2SO4(concentrated) ==== CuSO4 + SO3↑+ 2H2O 2Fe + 6H2SO4(concentrated) ==== Fe2(SO4)3 + 3SO3↑ + 6H2O

In the chemical reaction above, sulfuric acid shows a strong oxidizing property and acidic property.

Reaction with metal

Hot concentrated sulfuric acid can oxidize the nonmetal simple substances such as carbon, sulfur and phosphor to high valent oxide or oxygen acid. It can also be restored to be SO2. In this kind of reaction, concentrated sulfuric acid only shows its oxidability.

C + 2H2SO4(concentrated) ==== CO2↑ + 2SO2↑ + 2H2O

S + 2H2SO4(concentrated) ==== 3SO2↑ + 2H2O

2P + 5H2SO4(concentrated) ==== 2H3PO4 + 5SO2↑ + 2H2O

Reaction with other reducing substances

Concentrated sulfuric acid has a strong oxidizing property. Concentrated sulfuric acid should not used to prepare reducing gases such as H2S, HBr and HI in the laboratory.

H2S + H2SO4(concentrated) ==== S↓ + SO2↑ + 2H2O

2HBr + H2SO4(concentrated) ==== Br2↑ + SO2↑ + 2H2O

2HI + H2SO4(concentrated) ==== I2↑ + SO2↑ + 2H2O

Nonvolatile property (high boiling point): it can be used to prepare hydrogen chloride and nitric acid (principle: nonvolatile is used to prepare volatile acid). For example, solid sodium chloride and concentrated sulfuric acid can be used to react and prepare hydrochloric acid gas.

2NaCl(solid)+H2SO4====(concentrated)Na2SO4+2HCl↑ Na2SO3+H2SO4====Na2SO4+H2O+SO2↑ Na2SO3+H2SO4====Na2SO4+H2O+SO2↑

As another example, concentrated hydrochloric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid can be used to prepare hydrogen.

Acidic property: it can be used to produce chemical fertilizers such as nitrogenous fertilizer and phosphatic fertilizer. 2NH3+H2SO4====(NH4)2SO4 Ca3(PO3)2+2H2SO4====2CaSO4+Ca(H2PO4)2

Stability: reaction between concentrated sulfuric acid and sulfite Na2SO3+H2SO4====Na2SO4+H2O+SO2↑

Waste disposal

Methods of waste disposal: it should be poured to the alkali liquor-lime water and mixed constantly. After the reaction is stopped, plenty of water should be used to be crushed into the waste water system

Matters needing attention to transportation

Hazardous goods No.: 81007

UN No.: 1830

Category of packing: O51

Packing method: acid-resisting jar, ceramic bottle with external normal wooden box or lattice wooden box. Dull-polished-neck glass bottle or screw-neck glass bottle with external normal wooden box.

Matters needing attention to transportation: only the tank truck provided from steel enterprise to transport can be used for transport this product by railway transportation, and it shall be approved by the department concerned before transportation. The canning transportation by railway should be in strict accordance with the hazardous goods distribution list of Transportation of Dangerous Goods Code issued by Ministry of Railways. The package should be complete and loading should be proper when the transportation is started. It should be sure that the containers will not leakage, collapse, fall or be damaged in the process of transportation. It’s prohibited to have mixed loading and mixed transport with inflammable goods, combustible materials, reducing agent, alkaline, alkali metal or edible chemicals. Transport vehicle should be equipped with accidental release emergency equipments for the transportation. Solarization, rain or high temperature should be prevented in the process of transportation. The transport vehicle should run by the routes ruled on highway transportation. It’s not allowed to stop in residential area or congested area.

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